All of Us, Quite Like Detectives, By Ben Hogan

"All of us, quite like detectives, set off on our own separate paths.

We develop a cure here, put it to the test to see if it holds up, develop another lead there, test this lead in turn to see if it will hold up, and so on and so on.

It is not an easy job.

Today's brilliant deduction all too often folds under deeper examination and becomes tomorrow's dead end.

And more than that, with no trouble at all you can get off on the wrong track, increase your error by studiously taking the wrong turn at another crucial fork in the road, and before you know it you are lost in a labyrinth of your own making.

Perhaps the only true mystery to golf is the essential magnetism the game possesses which makes so many of us, regardless of discouragement, never quite turn in our trench coats and magnifying glasses and stop our search for the answers.

Golf also seems to bring out the scientist in a person.

He soon discovers that unless he goes about with an orderly method, he is simply complicating his problems."

Reference : 'The Complete series which appeared in SPORTS ILLUSTRATED Ben Hogan's Five Lessons', Ben Hogan with Herbert Warren Wind, Five Lessons The Modern Fundamentals of Golf Drawings by Anthony Ravielli A. S. Barnes and Company New York, © 1957 by Ben Hogan. Published on the same day in the Dominion of Canada by The Copp Clark Company, Ltd.,Toronto. Lesson 2, Stance and Posture, page 37.

Ben Hogan's Five Lessons

Finding The True Cure To Slicing In Golf

"Because the natural tendency for me - as it is for anyone who does not play the game regularly - will be to hit from the top of the backswing." Arthur D'Arcy Locke

A Drill For Slicers By Simon Holmes This Gate I Made

The Swing by Simon Holmes who trained Seve Ballesteros, Nick Faldo, Robert Karlsson. Filmed at The Emirates Golf Club Available on Amazon : Digital Golf School - The Swing [DVD]

Suffering From The Unintentional Slice

"Have YOU fixed your slice?

Having searched - endlessly - for the right cure online, in the latest Golf magazines, books, and DVDs or having consulted, at least, one Pro?

Should the answer still be a resounding "No!" then I sympathize with you completely.

My having sliced UNINTENTIONALLY, at one time, so badly I would typically scratch nine or more holes - per 18-hole round. But no longer.

Badly slicing "ruins cards", is a 'real pain' as well as very embarrassing, and at times a danger to other players or property (Imagine slicing, off the first tee, into a car park!). I am sure you know that only too well. So in that case, follow me on a journey of golf discovery and, like me, find the cure to the slice and finally cure YOUR slice!

My own search started with the books, DVDs and tapes, you'll see below, but which did not provide a satisfactory answer. Nor did golf teachers, with contradictory instructions about the grip and different ideas about the cause of the slice, and possible fixes.

Hence this web site, on what is an old problem, and now showing some very good results : no longer slicing, except intentionally (say on a dog leg to the right), and instead making pars and birdies, hitting that ball with "a snap of the wrists" for the long shots and with cut shot for the approach shot, thus gradually, steadily reducing my handicap. And, most importantly, enjoying one's golf (with no back pain and improving each time).

So hoping you too will find a way to cure the, dreaded, unintentional slice to finally play some truly enjoyable golf, without props, gimmicks or drills, by your knowing what to do for the type of shot you want to make happen, if the 'how' of all that is not - as yet - entirely clear."

"They are not to be discouraged by the view so often expressed that to play well a man must start early. Obviously it is an advantage so to do, but it is not impossible to surmount the difficulties caused by a youth in which there was no golf." J. H. Taylor

Many An Instruction Not A Cure

Cure Your Slice Forever! (1994) By John Huggan

"No problem in golf is so common - or so devastating - as the slice, which can ruin an otherwise good game.

Cure Your Slice Forever!, by Golf Digest' Senior Editor of Instruction, John Huggan, is a potent, step-by-step guide to understanding the various causes of your slice, breaking bad habits, and banishing the "banana ball" from your game forever.

You will learn:

  • The "mechanics" of a slice, and how your particular swing causes your kind of slice
  • Different ways to adapt your swing, your stance, and your grip to correct fundamental flaws that always prevent you from drawing the ball
  • How proper tempo builds a slice-free game
  • And even how to play your slice on the course before you get rid of it forever.

One-step solutions to slicing fail because they don't address the fundamentals.

Cure Your Slice Forever!  By John Huggan Golf DigestCure Your Slice Forever! provides you with all the information and advice you need to tackle your slice from the ground up, keep it from creeping back into your game, and become the best player you can be."

Reference : 'Cure Your Slice Forever!' By John Huggan Golf Digest's Senior Editor of Instruction. Foreword by Dan Jenkins. Illustrated by Dom Lupo. Golf Digest Pocket Books Copyright © 1994 by Golf Digest/Tennis Inc.

Available on Amazon : Cure Your Slice Forever!

"The right hand should not actively come into the stroke until just before impact." Abe Mitchell

Cure Your Slice Now (2000) By Chuck Cook

Chuck Cook, one of golf's top instructors, shows you how to get rid of that frustrating hook or slice - for good!

cure your slice now by Chuck CookIn this tape, the PGA of America's 1996 Teacher of the Year takes you through seven key phases of the swing.

He demonstrates how hookers (most low handicappers) and slicers (most high handicappers) can each achieve ideal positions.

Cook's drills help slicers generate power an hookers control it.

The result: longer, straighter shots for each! A cure your slice, or hook, program with expert advice on:

  • The Ideal Grip, with Two Tee Drill, and,
  • Ideal Stance, with Tripod Drill and Set Up Against the Wall Drill
  • Ideal Take Away, with The Arrow Drill; The Tee Drill
  • Ideal At The Top, with 90° Shoulder Drill; Jump Rope Drill
  • Ideal Downswing, with Point The Finger Drill; Chip/Punch Drill
  • Ideal Impact, with the Basket/Bucket Drill; Slap The Hand Drill
  • Ideal Follow-Through, with the Wall Drill; The Tee Drill

Reference : 'Cure your slice now' by Chuck Cook with Roger Schiffman. Video Produced by Prime Time II Entertainment & Sports Programming Inc. Golf Digest Copyright © 2000. Running Time: Approximately 25 minutes.

On location at Barton Creek Lakeside Golf Resort, in Spicewood, Texas. Chuck Cook's mentor was Harvey Penick. Chuck Cook has coached three Open Champions. 

Available on Amazon : Cure Your Slice Now Featuring Instructor Chuck Cook By Golf Digest

"Golf is no easy game, but I believe it is made much harder by all the 'laws' that have sprouted around it. In my method of swinging all these points are taken care of, with the utmost simplicity." Bobby Locke

Practice Makes Perfect (2005) By David Leadbetter

"At the core of this program is David Leadbetter's top 25 drills - all of which are regularly used by the top tour professionals all over the world.

All the drills and routines are simple, and easy to understand. They require no gadgets.

David Leadbetter Fixing Slice DVDAreas covered include:

  • Perfect posture drill
  • Left heel up full swing drill, to create resistance and power
  • Shut Face Anti-Slice Drill
  • Back To Target Anti-Slice Drill
  • Pitching distance contest drill
  • Improving rhythm in putting
  • Better tempo in your golf swing, and more.

Practice really does make perfect as long as it is done correctly - so realize your true golfing potential with the world's No 1 golf coach."

Reference : 'Practice Makes Perfect' DVD Video, David Leadbetter Golf Instruction, Produced and directed by John Davis. An ISL Production for Firfly Entertainment. Copyright © 2005 Firefly Entertainment Ltd. With special thanks to the Registry Hotel, Naples, Florida and Quail West Golf and Country Club. Running Time 65 minutes approx.

Available on Amazon : David Leadbetter - Practice Makes Perfect [DVD]

"Now laddie, if you ever want to make good in this business, you had better find out how to teach people not to slice." H. L. Curtis

logicalgolf® with Robert Baker (2005) By Robert Baker

This Double DVD by Robert Baker has a Chapter on 'Useful Tips':

  • Is it important to keep the chin up?
  • Should the left arm remain straight?
  • Should one have a flat, bowed or cupped left wrist at the top of the swing?
  • Swing the club from the inside, yes or no?
  • Transferring your weight effectively, with a level hip turn
  • How important is lateral movement in the downswing?
  • How to hit a solid draw shot, and not slice?
  • Firing the right side, for power
  • Slicers should turn the knuckles of the left hand towards the ground; from Ernie Els
  • Wrap Up/Summary (sequence of the swing).

Reference : 'Double DVD Video logicalgolf® with Robert Baker Fine-tune your long game and short game with Ernie Els and Seve Ballesteros. Copyright © 2005 logicalgolf® Running Time 100 mins approx. Robert, joined by Ernie Els and Seve Ballesteros, takes you through all the fundamentals of the long and short game.

Available on Amazon : Logical Golf With Robert Baker [DVD]

Faults And Cures (2005) By John Jacobs

"Formed top tournament player, TV personality and revitalizer of the European Tour, John Jacobs is a major figure on many golf fronts.

Doctor Golf John Jacobs Faults and Cures DVDBut it is as "Doctor Golf", superstar teacher, that Jacobs has won his vast following wherever the game is played.

In this programme John Jacobs diagnoses the problems of slicing, hooking, pulling and topping - and gives the solutions.

Topics covered include:

  • Slicing - The Clubface Factor
  • Slicing - The Swing Arc Factor
  • Slicing - The Swing Plane Factor
  • Hooking, Pulling, Pushing, Shanking, Topping
  • Hitting too High and too Low
  • Hitting Fat, Thin
  • Reviewing the Basics - let the ball teach you, and more."

Reference : 'Faults and Cures' DVD, Doctor Golf John Jacobs. Introduced by Sean Connery. Written and Presented by John Jacobs. Director of Photography - Joe Leirer. Edited by David Hankin. Produced and Directed by Michael Seligman. Copyright © 2005 Green Umbrella Sport and Leisure. Running Time: 60 mins approx.

Available on Amazon : John Jacobs - Faults And Cures [DVD]

How Firmly Should I Grip The Club By Doctor Golf John Jacobs

Doctor Golf John Jacobs Teaches You Practical Golf. The Purpose of The Swing and Frequently Asked Questions : How firmly should I grip the club? Available on Amazon : John Jacobs: Doctor Golf - The Full Swing

The Golf Doctor (2006) By Steve Kemsley

"The Golf Doctor - a one-stop golf instruction clinic for the most common and debilitating afflictions to attack your game.

In a simple, stage by stage format, you can move from tee to fairway to green, finding the specific area that you are struggling with and discovering a cure - usually with an easy thought, simple technical adjustment or fun practice drill.

All the advice is designed to easily apply to the course - there is no over-complicated, jargon-ridden instruction, just fun practical advice.

The Golf Doctor by Steve KemsleyYou'll find instant fixes and long-term cures all on this easily navigated DVD.

Featuring cures and drills for:

  • The Tee Shot
  • Slicing
  • Hooking
  • Chipping
  • Topping
  • Thinning
  • Shanking
  • Club selection
  • Putting - Short and Long
  • Bunker play
  • Fairway and Greenside."

Reference : 'The Golf Doctor' First Aid for your game. A one-stop golf instruction clinic for your most common golfing faults. Produced and directed by Steve Kemsley. Running time 50 minutes approx. Executive Producer Gareth Watson. A Banana Split Production for Firefly Entertainment Ltd. © 2006 Firefly Entertainment Ltd.

Available on Amazon : The Golf Doctor. A practical and informative guide to improving your golf game [DVD]

the essential GOLF syllabus (2006) By Neil Clarkson

Choose your lesson and club by clicking on a picture icon. You can then precisely select the instruction or action via the menu. A great reference for all golfers.

the essential GOLF syllabus Neil Clarkson

It will complement your lessons too PLUS Unique MultiView system for instant picture selection The MultiView system is the sole copyright of Simply Cinema

View every shot from 4 camera angles, in slow motion, and as split screens. The DVD also features checkpoints where key positions are frozen for study. Exploding The Myths."

Reference : 'the essential GOLF syllabus for all golfers' Over 4 hours of interactive instruction on 2 DVDS DVD 1 with Neil Clarkson PGA Professional Choose your lesson, choose your club DVD 2 with golf psychologist Lee Cromleholme MIND GAMES Clear your mind, improve your game Sports psychology for professionals, now for all golfers Filmed at Le Meridien Penina, home to the Portuguese Open 2006. Thanks to Golf Holidays Limited DVD Video

Maximum Improvement (2007) By Simon Holmes

"Learn from the top golf instructor, Simon Holmes.

He has trained golf greats such as Seve Ballesteros, Nick Faldo, Robert Karlsson and more than 80 other tour players who have won more than 40 events globally.

Following on from the worldwide best seller Digital Golf School, now also available in The Swing and The Short Game, Simon Holmes now turns his attention to identifying the key areas of consistency and by explanation, demonstration and drills shows you how to maximise all areas of your game.

Digital Golf School Maximum Improvement Simon HolmesIn 'Building a Swing You Can Trust', the DVD video covers:

  • Getting Started
  • Maximising Power and Accuracy
  • More Efficient Arms
  • 'Bunker Basics
  • Pitch it Closer
  • Making Your Putting a Strength
  • Multi Angle Viewing: swing, chipping, putting.

In 'Fixing Your Swing', the DVD video covers:

  • Maximise Your Body Movement
  • Control The Ball Flight, with 'One for the slicers'
  • Improve Your Strike
  • Different Skills,
  • Getting Out of Bunkers
  • Shot Selection in Chipping."

Reference : 'Digital Golf School Maximum Improvement' by Simon Holmes. Simon Holmes Golf Academy. Filmed at Arcos Gardens, Arcos de la Frontera, Spain. Running Time: 103 minutes. Point Alvin Production.

Available on Amazon : Digital Golf School: Maximum Improvement [DVD]

"If you try to hit with the hands, you are almost sure to spoil the effort by holding too tightly with the right. The player who falls into this error generally slices. Their function is to put the club - head into the proper position for hitting the ball; not to do the hitting." Harry Vardon

Lessons With PGA Pros Notes (2010) By Ronald Ross

"This was my PGA modern golf instruction experience and that 'Eureka' moment was not to be the cure to the slice.

Lessons with PGA Pros Notes 2010

Are you still struggling with your golf?

Then you better start to study the original golf fundamentals", of which there are 20.

From Golf Champions And Renowned Golf Instructors

Learning from golf champions and renowned golf instructors, instead, and discovering :

With the true cure to the slice deduced from these findings:

  1. Harry Vardon (1905) and the words: "The grip with the first finger and thumb of my right hand is exceedingly firm",
  2. Alex Smith (1907) and the words: "Set the trigger for the "Throw of the club" ; "Throw them back and out",
  3. James Braid (1909) : "from the arms", "under tension",
  4. Harold H Hilton (1909) : "Well, the left hand is the partner in the concern whose duty is to see the machinery is in good working order",
  5. Harry Vardon (1913) : "if you aim behind at the outset" and "out to the right and a little behind the body",
  6. Walter J. Travis (1920) : "This momentary stoppage", "the moment that counts",
  7. Bobby Jones (1931-32) : "a very definite pull of the left arm from the shoulder",
  8. Joyce Wethered (1933) : "Before the club swings down" and "No part of the body above the left hip should be involved in this early transference of weight",
  9. Alfred Padgham (1936) : "left arm back to the position at TWO", "AND",
  10. Bobby Jones (1961) : "effect of dropping the club a bit towards the player's rear and thus enhancing the opportunity of hitting straight through the ball on the line of play.",
  11. Henry Cotton (1964) : "As the left hand has to turn down towards the ball in the last section of the down swing, it is obvious that the club-face can be squared up more easily if the grip between the index finger and thumb is strong", "No golfer is better than his hands"; "You must learn to do this",
  12. Laddie Lucas (1980) : "Using the left hand, and keeping the back of the head over the ball at impact - not allowing it to come up with the shot",
  13. Vivien Saunders (1991) : "This part of the index finger is behind the club face. Its ready to give it a whack." and "loop the other way", and,
  14. Gary Player (2006): "Slightly on the inside",
  15. Bobby Locke : "the drag with the left hand that keeps the club-head 'inside' as it goes down, prevents looping and, if the follow-through is correct, it also prevents slicing",
  16. Ultimately, the timeless cure to slicing in golf as validated by Seymour Dunn : In the downswing : "This unwinding of the shoulders would throw the swing out of line were it not counteracted or absorbed by further pronation of the left forearm during the downswing. This absorption of the shoulder turn by the forearm is the most complicated movement in the entire swing, so I will analyze it in detail." and, at impact : "The Snap of The Wrists".

Play The Ball Straight (1907) By Alex Smith

"Now, before we attempt any actual stroke, I want to say a few words on the spin, a subject about which much has been written and which yet remains a mystery to many good players.

We are already familiar with the spin to the right which produces slice, and with the corresponding spin to the left, which shows itself in the pulled ball. We know, too, that a straight ball from the tee may have either a direct over spin or a direct under spin.

In the former instance, which is analogous to the follow-shot at billiards, the ball has a long run ; in the latter case the ball is inclined to rise or tower near the close of its flight and falls comparatively dead. Finally, slice or a spin to the right is generally accompanied by under spin, both of which tend to shorten its flight. The pulled ball, on the other hand, has both left hand and over spin and is the longest ball that can be driven. In my own game I am quite content to depend upon the simple over and under spins, and to play the ball straight.

We have, then, the two straightforward spins - the over, which corresponds to the follow at billiards, and the under, which produces in some degree the effect of the draw.

How Are These Spins Produced?

Striking It Below The Centre

My theory is that the quality of the spin depends almost entirely upon the amount of loft on the club. The mashie and niblick are laid back farther than any other club, and their natural tendency is to put an under spin on the ball. It is the lower half of the blade that first means the ball, striking it below the centre.

The consequence is under spin, or draw, just as in billiards.

At The Centre Line Or A Little Above It

With the midiron, the driving mashie, and the cleek the blade is more and more upright, and it meets the ball at the centre line or a little above it. The consequence is the over spin, or the billiard follow-on.

How Cleek Blade Strikes Ball At Centre Lessons In Golf By Alex Smith 1907

Normally played, the cleek drives a lower ball than the driving mashie, and the driving mashie gives a lower flight than the midiron. The difference depends on the amount of loft, and the less the pitch of the club the lower the trajectory.

The iron putter, for example, is straighter in the face than any other club, including the driver, and it accordingly drives the lowest ball of all. An interesting confirmation of my theory is a putter brought out a few year ago in which the face of the blade was hung over the ball - the direct opposite of the ordinary loft. The theory was that it would strike the ball well above the centre and so put a forward or over spin upon it, and this is just what it did do.

We have, therefore, over spin as the normal result of play with driver, brassey, spoon, cleek, and driving mashie. The mid iron stands just upon the dividing line, and then come the mashie and niblick, producing under spin. With this theory established, we may go on to put it in practice."

Reference : 'Lessons In Golf' By Alex Smith, Open Champion, United States and Western Open Champion New York, Arthur Pottow, 48 West 27th Street 1907, Copyright 1907 by Arthur Pottow Grannis Press New York. Lesson IV The Short Game, page 72.

Download : 'Lessons In Golf' By Alex Smith, Open Champion, United States and Western Open Champion New York, Arthur Pottow, 48 West 27th Street 1907, Copyright 1907 by Arthur Pottow Grannis Press New York. Lesson IV The Short Game.

My Handicap

Past Test Practice Round Pars & Birdies

read more

Handicap 2014 January at 29; 28; 27.5; 26; 26.1; 26.3; 26.4; 26.5; 26.7; 26.9; 27.1; 27.3; 27.5; 24.4; 24.5; December 22.9, ? - and the dreaded (unintentional) slice is cured!

The Short Way To Lower Scoring Part 2: Chipping with Paul Runyan

Paul Runyan Two-time PGA Champion © 1986 Filmed on location at La Quinta Hotel Golf Club
VHS Available on Amazon : The Short Way To Lower Scoring Volume I: Putting and Chipping

Handicap - No Driver 2015 to mid-April 2017

Handicap 2015 April 22.9; 23; 23; 23; 23.1; 23.1; 23.1; 23.2; 23.3; 23.4; June 22.2; 22.3; 22.4; 22.6; 22,8; 20,0; November 20,1; 2016 March 20,2; 20,2; 18,2; 18,2; 18,3; 18,4; 18,5; April 18,6; 18,6; May 18,6; 18,6; 18,6; June 18,6; 18,7; 18,7; July 18,7; 18,8; 18,8; 18,9; 19,00; 19,1 August 17,1; September 17,2; 17,3; 17,4; October 17,5; 17,6; 17,7; 17,8; November 17,9; 18,0; 17,5; February 2017 16,3; March 16,4; 16,5; 16,6; April 16,6; 16,6; 16,7 16,8

Focusing on the short game. Need to master the pitch shot, runner-up, chip shot, bunker shot and sloping lies.

Learning Golf on www.curedmygolfslicedotcom

Handicap April 2017

One test on driving range and bought a Taylormade M2 Driver, works well. Handicap : 16,8 Won first prize netto.

Bought new M2 irons also the new 3-wood, to replace old iron set (no 5 iron and wood/rescue heads kept splitting). Waiting for delivery, from UK. Bought the 3- and 4- irons. Ladies clubs.

August 17,2; 17,3 (Win Nearest to the Pin, Hole 7, Par 3, Yellow tee, 185m, 3m25cm beyond pin, iron 4, 1 putt made birdie 2); September 17; October 16,6; 16,7; then up again to 17,5 over the following months.

Handicap - Iron 3 January 2018

Training has restarted but too cold, even at just 5 C. No time for the driving range, first hole Par 4 in 4, to the end button Par 3 in 3 (missed birdie chance), Par 4 in 5 (second shot misses green, chip down hill too long, 2 putts), Par 3 in 3, Par 3 in 3, last Par 4 in 4 (second shot over water - akward lie - too long, chip and 1 putt). Not bad! (Taylor Made have no Iron 2!).

Handicap - June 2018

New set of clubs. Men's. New driver. 24 June. Won nearest to the Pin 147 metres. Handicap 17.2.

Handicap - October 2018

Moved back from July to 17.9 before dropping to 15.2 in October.

Early Saturday 15.2 October 2018

Have improved pitching (revisiting George Duncan), chipping and putting (revisiting Bobby Jones). Driver, 3-wood very good (Alex Smith's two-handed swing, Dunns' Transmission of power).

Learning Golf on www.curedmygolfslicedotcom

Handicap - November 2018

End of season 26/11/18 :14.9

"The meaning of the term "swing" includes all movements involved in swinging the club - the back swing, and down swing, and the follow through. The term "stroke" means the effort of striking at the ball. The "shot" is the resulting flight of the ball. Never start anyone with a driver." Seymour Dunn

Find out how to cure YOUR slice here and now.

Discover it is a strength executed intentionally and called 'the cut stroke.'


by Andra Kirkaldy - Vardon's performance at fifty

"Professionals play best about thirty, as a rule, although many amateurs will tell you that they have gone on improving after fifty. These are genrally moderate players who manage to keep comfortably within single-figure handicaps. The strain is distinctly felt on the scratch or plus mark, as the years go by and younger men come on to make the pace.

I think Vardon's performance at fifty in America recently, when Ted Ray just managed to snatch the Championship from him, was a great credit to Harry and a great testimonial to golf.

Jock Hutchinson- one of the finest golfers St. Andrews ever gave to America- saw that final 72-hole struggle, and said to me when he was over in Scotland lately: "Vardon was never off the pin for a single shot, while all the other professionals very often left the fairway, Ray among them. There came a gust of wind towards the end, and Vardon got exhausted. At the close he sat down and said: 'I could not play another hole. I'm fairly done.'"

Hutchinson added: "There is not another golfer in the world like him, Andrew, young or old. His straight driving made me gasp."

Reference : 'Fifty Years of Golf : My Memories' By Andra Kirkaldy of St. Andrews Told To Clyde Foster With 21 Illustrations T. Fisher Unwin Ltd London: Aldelphi Terrace First published in 1921 (All rights reserved) CHAPTER XII The "Nineteenth Hole" 214

by Alex Smith - With the mastery of these two strokes

"The so-called push shot is a most useful one to learn.

You lose a little in distance, but it is the only way of dealing with a bad lie. The ball flies on a low trajectory, has but little roll, and, when properly executed, gives one great control over the ball.

To play it, the club, firmly gripped, is brought up rather straighter than usual, and you hit as though you wanted to drive the ball in the ground.

The club head first hits the ball, and then goes into the earth, cutting out a bit of turf immediately in front of the ball, never behind it. If you take the turf before the ball is struck the shot will be a failure.

Lessons in Golf BY Alex Smith 1907The right wrist turns over at the moment of impact, and you must be sure to carry the hands through and not hold back the left arm as in the regular swing.

The chief difference between the push shot and the ordinary one is that the hands and left shoulder go through after the ball instead of swinging round.

The push is a shot that may be played with any club. The ball should be a trifle nearer the right foot.

With the mastery of these two strokes the golfer should be able to play the long game respectfully."

Reference : 'Lessons in Golf' BY Alex Smith Open Champion, United States and Western Open Champion New York, Arthur Pottow, 48 West 27th Street 1907. Lesson III Off the Tee and Through the Green page 64.

by Harry Vardon - Glad is the man who has mastered all of them

"There is an old saying that golf matches are won on the putting greens, and it has often been established that this one, like many other old sayings, contains an element of truth, but is not entirely to be relied on. In playing a hole, what is one's constant desire and anxiety from the tee shot to the last putt?

It is to effect, somehow or other, that happy combination of excellent skill with a little luck as will result practically in the saving of a whole stroke, which will often mean the winning of the hole. Therefore, while I say that he is a happy and lucky man who is able constantly to save his game on the putting green, happier by far is he who is not called upon to do so.

A Cut Approach With Mashie Stance Harry Vardon 1905In this way the skilled golfer generally finds the mashie the most fascinating club to play with, and there are few pleasures in the game which can equal that of laying the ball well up to the pin from a distance of many yards. Here, indeed, is a field for lifelong practice.

Generally all mashie shots may be separated into three groups. There is what we may call the ordinary mashie shot to begin with - meaning thereby a simple lofted stroke, - there is the running-up mashie shot, and there is the special stroke which applies extra spin and cut to the ball.

There are very pronounced differences between these strokes and the ways of playing them.

One is often told that "all mashies should be played with the wrist." I beg to differ.

As I have said before, I contend that there is no such thing as a purely wrist shot in golf - except on the putting green. If anybody really made up his mind to play his mashie with his wrist and his wrist alone, he would find the blade of his club in uncomfortable proximity to his face at the finish of the stroke, and I should not like to hazard a guess as to where the ball might be.

Such are the shots with the mashie, and glad is the man who has mastered all of them, for he is then a golfer of great pretensions, who is to be feared by any opponent at any time or place."

Reference : 'The Complete Golfer' With Sixty-Six Illustrations, Second Edition, Methuen & Co. London. First published June 1905 Second Edition June 1905. Chapter X Play With The Iron Page 112, Chapter XI Approaching With The Mashie Page 118.

by R. A. Whitcombe - If you are to be a successful player all three shots at your command

"It is an old saying of the game that a man who can putt is a match for any man. My own view is that the man who can get down in two from anywhere just off the green is a far more dangerous player than the man who is a good putter only.

If you can get consistently near the flag with your shots you are giving yourself much better chances than he who only holes long putts. If you can play your approach shots well enough you won't have any long putts to hole!

That is why I urge you to devote more time to practice round the green than any other part of the game. To imagine the flag as being the centre of a circle and make up your mind to get the ball into the circle is quite a good method to adopt, and as your confidence grows with success so can you decrease the size of the circle. You will find that the short game is the part which you are likely to fail when first you start playing matches. You may find that your long shots are as good as those of much lower handicap players than yourself but that somehow or other those players always seem to get down in one less than you do. That is because of all golf the short game takes longer to become proficient in than any other, and it is the first part to go wrong when you do not play for a week or two or - though I hardly like to mention it - when you have had a few late nights!

You can come back after an absence from the game, or play when you are not feeling at your best, and hit your long shots as well as ever. It is the short shots that will find out your weakness. You have got to have perfect control of yourself and your club to play these shots which demand great accuracy.

The three shots to be learned are the pitch, the pitch-and-run, and the run-up. The little tiddley ones, the perfect playing of which is of the greatest value in golf to every player, are generally referred to as 'chips'. If you are to be a successful player it is essential that you have all three shots at your command."

Reference : 'Golf's No Mystery!' A book for golfers and beginners BY R. A. Whitcombe Open Champion With a Foreword by Peter Lawless Illustrated with thirty photographs London: J. M. Dent And Sons Ltd All rights reserved Made in Great Britain at The Temple Press Letchworth for J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd Aldine House Bedford St London First Published 1938 Reprinted 1938 (twice) CHAP. XVI. The Magic Circle Page 97.

Download : 'The Magic Circle' by R. A. Whitcombe Open Champion including "The three shots to be learned are the pitch, the pitch-and-run, and the run-up. If you are to be a successful player it is essential that you have all three shots at your command."

by Paul Runyan - The ideal chipper was the jigger

"The two ends of the game are the most important. Putting comes first, and driving second. But a very close third in importance is the ability to get the ball down in two from immediately off the green, within chip-shot or short pitch-shot distance.

There is one example of an excellent striker of the ball who was also very good at getting down in two whenever he had to: Ben Hogan himself.

To differentiate between chip and pitch shots: the chip shot requires variable loft and no reverse spin; the pitch shot requires variable loft and variable degrees of spin.

And chipping, at least to me, covers those shots immediately off the putting surface, ranging from a few inches outside to perhaps twenty or thirty feet. Some loft is required, in order to carry the ball on the fly to the green itself, but backspin is not needed. The aim is just to hit the green safely and make the ball run from that point on toward the hole as much like a putt as possible. It seems logical then to use the putting grip and putting stroke. Except for unusual circumstances, such as when you must hit the ball through a narrow opening between two trees, the very outside limit for such a putting stroke is seventy or eighty feet. But as a youngster I discovered that from close in to the green it worked far better than trying to chip with the conventional pitch shot grip or using the putter itself from the deeper grass.

There are important differences, of course. You have to keep your hands ahead of the ball on chip shots, unlike putts, since the ball is not sitting up and must be struck before the bottom of the arc is reached to insure a clean contact even in fuzzy fairway grass. A six-iron is the straightest-faced club I ever use, although I do lead the clubhead with the hands sometimes far enough to reduce it, probably, to a four-iron loft. Why don't I simply use the four iron? Because then my hands would be even with the ball and I would be more likely to hit behind it. That is the major sin in these greenside shots. For then the shot will usually expire right in front of you. However a ball that is half-topped can still turn out fairly well because this method gives a wider margin for error.

In the days when we could carry as many clubs as we wished the ideal chipper was the jigger, with its shallow blade and more curved sole than the regular irons. That curved sole helped keep the blade from digging. If the fourteen-club rule is ever repealed that jigger would be the first club to go back into my golf bag. For the pitch shots we return to the regular, orthodox grip, where the "V" of the left hand points to the right shoulder and the "V" of the right hand points at the nose. The club is held by a semi-palm, semi-finger grip of the left hand, and by a finger grip of the right. But the grip of the right hand is more relaxed than that of the left."

Reference : Paul Runyan's Book For Senior Golfers by Paul Runyan 1961-1962 Senior P.G.A. Champion And World's Senior Champion Illustrated Dodd, Mead & Company New York Copyright © 1962 by Paul Runyan. Chapter 7 CHIPPING.

Download : Chapter 7 CHIPPING Chapter 8 The Pitch Shots by Paul Runyan, 1962.

Download : 'The Short Way To Lower Scoring' SECTION 3: CHIPPING by Paul Runyan with Dick Aultman Foreword by U.S. Open winner GENE LITTLER Illustrations by Anthony Ravielli Copyright © 1979 by Golf Digest, Inc.

by Willie Park Junior - Pay great attention to putting

"Attention has already been directed to the necessity for playing approaches with accuracy; still greater, however, is the necessity for good putting.

The Game of Golf By Willie Park Junr PuttingA stroke is defined as 'any movement of the club which is intended to strike the ball'; a drive of a couple of hundred yards and a putt of six inches equally count a stroke, notwithstanding the disparity of distance. It will easily be understood how a few badly played putts will make all the difference between a good and a bad score.

Two strokes on each green may be regarded as the proper allowance for first-class play, three strokes means that one too many is taken; and if the latter number be required at each hole, it makes a difference of eighteen strokes on the round.

It has before been stated, when treating of the subject of approaching, that a golfer who can lay the ball near the hole with his approaches has a chance of saving a stroke on almost every putting-green against an opponent who does not play this part of the game so accurately, provided always that he can putt well; the proviso is most important.

Unless the golfer is able to follow up with good putting the advantage gained by his approaches, the benefit is quite thrown away, and he is not in any better position than is his opponent who is less skilful in that particular part of the game.

There is not a great number of holes on any links which require, bar hazards and mistakes, three strokes to reach the green from the tee; and leaving the difference to the score altogether out of account, it must be very humiliating to most players to know that they have required as many strokes to cover the last twenty yards of distance as it has taken them the previous four or five hundred yards.

Putting is therefore probably the most important part of the game, as no player who putts indifferently can ever hope to excel, however proficient he may be in driving and approaching.

It thus behoves golfers to pay great attention to putting...

Putting should be almost all done with one hand, because, when both hands are used, the one acts against the other; the right hand is the hand which guides the club, and guiding the club is everything in putting, especially in short putts.

With regard to the part of the club-shaft to be grasped, there is the greatest possible diversity of practice."

Reference : 'The Game of Golf' By W. Park Junr. Chapter VI. Putting. This edition published in 2010 by Arcturus Publishing Limited, London. Copyright © 2010 Arcturus Publishing Limited. Printed in China. First published 1896

Download : 'Modern (1933) Golfing Methods By British And American Experts' Edited By Jas. Currie Macbeth. T.H. Cotton: Putting: Right hand in control

by Clubgolfscotland - From entry level to the highest levels of achievement

"The aim of ClubGolf is to create a development pathway from entry level to the highest levels of achievement, enabling increased access to golf, higher participation levels, improved standards of performance, and sustained growth in the future.

Part of Scotland's successful Ryder Cup bid, ClubGolf was born out of the Scottish Government's pledge to introduce every child in Scotland to golf by age nine.

A few stats

Since its launch in 2003 ClubGolf has seen over 300,000 children introduced to golf at school.

Over 15% of those children then transition through to stage one coaching at one of 303 ClubGolf delivery centres across Scotland.

Please take a look at our latest Status Report for the most up to date stats and figures."

Source : ClubGolfScotland web site

by Matthew Syed - What is required is ten thousand hours

"So the question is:

How long do you need to practise in order to achieve excellence?

Extensive research, it turns out, has come up with a very specific answer to that question: from art to science and from board games to tennis, it has been found that a minimum of ten years is required to reach world-class status.

...An analysis of the top nine golfers of the twentieth century showed that they won their first international competition at around twenty-five years of age, which was, on average more than ten years after they started golfing.

The same finding has been discovered in fields as diverse as mathematics, tennis, swimming, and long-distance running.

In Outliers, Malcolm Gladwell points out that most top performers practise for around one thousand hours per year (it is difficult to sustain the quality of practice if you go beyond this), so he re-describes the ten-year rule as the ten-thousand-hour rule.

This is the minimum time necessary for the acquisition of expertise in any complex task.

Matthew Syed Bounce The myth of talent and the power of practice...The ten-thousand-hour rule, then, is inadequate as a predictor of excellence.

What is required is ten thousand hours of purposeful practice.

And for practice to be truly purposeful, concentration and dedication, although important, are not sufficient.

You also need to have access to the right training system, and that sometimes means living in the right town or having the right coach."

Reference : 'Bounce' By Matthew Syed The myth of talent and the power of practice. Fourth Estate. An imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers London. This Fourth Estate paperback edition published 2011. Copyright Matthew Syed 2010.

Download : Part I: The Talent Myth 3 The Path To Excellence By Matthew Syed, International table-tennis champion (after many hours of practice).

Download : 'From "Dub" to Champion Then and there I made a vow' By MRS. O. S. HILL United North and South and Trans-Mississpipi Champion, Golf Illustrated. With 'Two International Matches' THE AMERICAN TEAM (from back) Miss Maureen Orcutt, Mrs. O. S. Hill, Mrs. E. H. Vare, Miss Marion Hollins (Captain), Miss V. van Wie, Ms. Helen Hicks, (Not named), Mrs Cheney. At Wentworth course, Surrey. "The match ended in favour of America"; 'Technical Golf, The Mental View' in 'Golfing Memories and Methods' By Joyce Wethered, 1933. Open Champion 1922, 1924, 1925, 1929. English Champion 1920, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924.

Countdown to 10,000! Reality Golf :

by Lutz Jancke Plos One - Within the first 800 to 3,000 practising hours

"Considering that the golf handicap strongly depends on the amount of accumulated practice (total practice time in years or months), the current finding supports the idea that neuroanatomical changes are induced by intensive golf practice.

But the evident lack of differences between PROs and the HCP 1-14 group, even though the former practiced approximately 8 times as much as the latter, may indicate that the anatomical differences were induced predominantly in the early phases of golfing practice (e.g. within the first 800 to 3,000 practising hours)."

Reference: 'PLOS ONE: The Architecture of the Golfer's Brain' Lutz Jancke, Susan Koeneke, Ariana Hoppe, Christina Rominger, Jurgen Hanggi Published: March 11, 2009

by James Braid - If the man himself does not try very hard

"There is a stage in the progress of most golfers which is a very critical one for the future of their game. They learn the rudiments of the game to start with, and then they generally go on improving very slowly for some time.

Their handicaps come down stroke by stroke, and all seems to be going fairly well, but then improvement stops, and no more strokes are taken off for perhaps years, or it may be for ever.

Instead, they often have difficulty afterwards in playing up to the handicap to which they had arrived. Sometimes this stop comes when they are only eighteen-handicap men; sometimes it is at fourteen; other times at twelve or ten; and again, it is often when they are about six, and then it is generally the most vexing of all, for they had begun to think they would be down to scratch before long.

But at whatever stage the stop comes this is the most critical period, for the golfer must then make an unusually determined effort to go forward. The stoppage in the progress is often due to some serious fault in style or method, but, on the other hand, it is frequently because after a certain point is reached - particularly when the long game has been cultivated to a very excellent state - progress naturally becomes slower and more difficult than before, and it is often the case that laborious practice, for which the reward is very slow, is needed in two matters, the short game and the powers of recovery.

It is in these two points that the very good player is oftenest distinguished from him who is just good.

The possibilities of improvement are there for nearly everybody if they will acknowledge them, and in saying this I wish particularly to emphasise that players need never be afraid of not being able to make good golfers of themselves because they do not start early enough in life.

Naturally it is an enormous advantage to begin the game as a boy, for the player then acquires without much difficulty a certainty in making his strokes that is very hard to acquire afterwards.

But it can be acquired, as had been proved over and over again; and even the man who begins the game at middle age may make a good golfer of himself, even if not one of the best.

Why so many of those who do not begin the game until they are grown up fail to get on with it, is because they do not try hard enough, do not think enough, and cannot give sufficient time to practice.

Advanced Golf By James BraidThey may have lost much of the power of trying, and they must recover some of it if they are to do any good.

Nobody can teach a man to play a good game of golf, either by showing him on the links or by writing a book for him, if the man himself does not try very hard.

Golf is not at all that sort of game, and neither I nor anyone else would pretend that a man has simply to read a book on the game and then go out on to a course and find himself at once able to do all the things that he has been reading about.

He must first of all make sure that he is on the right line, and then he must think and practise as much as he is able to do."

Reference : 'Advanced Golf Or, Hints And Instruction For Progressive Players' By James Braid Open Champion, 1901, 1905, And 1906. Advanced Golf Chapter I Introductory Need For Effort page 10. With Eighty-Eight Photographs And Diagrams, Fifth Edition, August 1909.

by Glenna Collett - It was due to the great professional Alex Smith

Glenna Collett Off The Course"It was due to the great professional Alex Smith that I took to the overlapping grip.

By means of this grip I was enabled to add perceptibly to the power I was able to get from the club and to increase in a very marked manner the length of my drives.

Hitherto I had been using a grip in which I held the two hands as close as I could, but not with the little finger of the right riding on the forefinger of the left. I used to call it the V grip.

Alex Smith, however, made me hold the club more in the fingers than in the palm.

Now I will try to explain the overlapping grip as used by me for the last five years; I can see no good reason for ever changing it. In the fingers of the left hand I take the club not quite at the end of the leather and hold it firmly with thumb and forefinger.

The stick does not lie across the hand at the base of the fingers.

The three fingers of the right hand I place as near the fingers of the left hand as possible, and then let my little finger of the right hand on the forefinger of the left, but not between the forefinger and the middle finger.

Golf for Young Players by Glenna CollettThe thumbs are down the shaft, though sometimes I find that I allow the right thumb to lie across the shaft.

I think that the finger grip has more in it that will contribute length and speed to the stroke, and with the grip the two hands work more as one, especially in the putting section of the game.

The grip, as I have tried to explain, is another essential to a sound and good game."

Reference : 'Golf For Young Players', by Glenna Collett, Women's National Amateur Champion. Boston, Little, Brown and Company. 1926. Copyright © 1926, by Glenna Collett.

Glenna Collett, The Womens Champion The American Golfer June, 1929. Courtesy LA84 Foundation.

Helpful Hints for Women Players By Jack Gordon

by Harvey Penick - Hitting from the top

"PROBABLY THE BIGGEST fault for all players has dozens of different names around the world.

In England it is called Casting, which is a good description because the movement you make with your right arm and hand is similar to casting with a fly rod.

My friend Darrell Royal, an excellent golf player as well as the head coach of National Championship football teams at the University of Texas, has a colorful name for the fault I am talking about. Darrell calls it OTTFIG. This translates to: "Over the Top, Forget It."

For this discussion, I will refer to the fault as Hitting From the Top.

Hitting From the Top is what happens when you reach the top of your backswing, and start back down to the ball by throwing your hands at it.

Many golfers play their whole lives Hitting From the Top. Some have managed to play well despite this flaw.

Amateur Bud McKinney, a Texan who wore big flashy diamond rings, rang up an impressive record while Hitting From the Top. There are players on the professional tour who get outside the ball on their downswing, which is about the same thing as Hitting From the Top.

But just because some players are athletic enough to make this move and get away with it, doesn't make it any less disastrous for the average golfer.

No one has ever found an instant cure for this particular ailment.

Hard practice on sound fundamentals is a great help, of course, but that is not the answer a one-visit student wants to hear from an instructor.

Here are a number of things that cause Hitting From the Top:

  • A grip that is too weak, especially the left hand.
  • Misuse of the forearms, meaning the use of the wrists instead of the forearms at the beginning of the backswing and at impact.
  • Aiming to the right.
  • A stiff left leg at impact.
  • I notice that the expert players who are least likely to Hit From the Top keep their knees slightly bent as they come through the ball.

    Telling a student to hit against a strong left side, which used to be common theory in teaching, tends to make the student start the downswing from outside the ball, straighten the left leg and throw the club out and over the correct swing path.

    (To demonstrate this point, make a slow-motion swing keeping your knees slightly bent until after the ball is hit. The club will stay inside. Take another slow-motion swing and straighten your left leg about halfway down. Your upper body will throw itself out and over the ball).

  • The clubface too open at address.

But the question the instructor constantly confronts is, how to persuade the student to stop Hitting From the Top without becoming too technical or offering more advice that can be absorbed in one lesson.

I know five ways that have been successful for me. The first and simplest is to make the student try to hit the ball on the toe of the club for a while. This is often a one-aspirin remedy for the sickness.

Another simple one is to place two balls on the ground about two inches apart and have the student hit the inside ball without touching the other.

A third and still simple method is for me to hold a shaft about a foot off the ground in front of the student and have him swing beneath it.

The fourth cure, the strongest and most basic, is to make the student learn to hook the ball.

Strengthen the grip, rolling both hands to the right in exaggerated fashion. Tell the student to go ahead and hook the ball clear off the practice range.

I don't care if it's a pulled hook or a big wild hook, just as long as it is a hook. I tell the student to rotate the left forearm to the right going back.

Harvey Penick's Little Red Book with Bud ShrakeSometimes I have the student think of rotating the entire left arm. This fans the clubhead open on the backswing.

Then bring the club down rotating the left arm and hand (the right hand automatically becomes involved) to the left and close the clubface hard at impact.

This process produces some of the most screaming fishhook-looking shots you ever saw. But to hit these fish-hooks, the student has to come into the ball from the inside.

Once a student learns to create hooks at will, he has usually stopped Hitting From the Top. The problem now becomes curing the hook. But this is relatively easy.

The fifth method is a slow-motion drill, and it's such an important drill that I want to hold it apart and explain it in a piece of its own."

Reference : 'Harvey Penick's Little Red Book: Lessons and Teachings from a Lifetime in Golf' Harvey Penick with Bud Shrake. Introductions By Tom Kite, Ben Crenshaw, Mickey Wright, Kathy Whitworth, Betty Rawls, Mary Lena Faulk, Dave Marr, And Byron Nelson. Simon & Schuster Copyright © 1992 by Harvey Penick and Bud Shrake, and Helen Penick. Hitting From the Top page 77.

Download : The Slow-Motion Drill by Harvey Penick

by Johnny Revolta - Consult your pro

"In correcting your faults, try to think of your golf swing as a single operation.

When you run into golf troubles, try to correct them by first going back through the formula, slowly, step by step.

Use the straight-wrist exercise with first a short backswing, then a slightly longer one, and finally a full backswing. Often you can iron out your difficulties that way with a minimum of danger that new faults will creep in.

Concentration on the fundamentals: grip, stance, weight distribution, hand action, tempo-these are the answers to good golf. And don't forget to swing the club back low at the start of the backswing...

A quick review of the fundamentals will uncover your trouble in time to save the round. If, however, you run into a persistent fault that defies self-analysis there is only one sound remedy: consult your pro.

The professionals themselves consult other pros not only to improve their game but to correct their golfing faults. Quite often these faults are apparent to the trained observer, but the golfer himself is blind to them.

There are excellent pros in all sections of the country: men like Henry Picard at the Canterbury Country Club, Cleveland; Harry Pressler of San Gabriel, California; Al and Emery Zimmerman of Portland, Oregon; Claude Harmon of Winged Foot, New York; Horton Smith of the Detroit Golf Club and Al Watrous of Oakland Hills in Detroit; Leland Gibson of Blue Hills Country Club, Kansas City- and thousands of other good pros.

If you are seriously intent on improving your game, these men can help you."

Reference : 'Johnny Revolta's Short Cuts To Better Golf', Revised Edition, by Johnny Revolta and Charles B. Cleveland. Illustrated by Jerry Gibbons. Copyright © 1949, 1956 by Johnny Revolta and Charles B. Cleveland. Designed by Maurice Serle Kaplan.

by Louis V. Gerstner, Jr - Hello, golf!

"I could tell a lot of investment-banker stories, but perhaps the one that stands out in my mind the most was the proposal from one bank that IBM acquire Compaq Computer.

The summary of the transaction that was included in the front of the ever-present blue book showed IBM's stock price going up forever after completing the transaction.

Who Says Elephants Cant' Dance Louis V. Gerstner Jr Hello golfSurprised at how this tree would grow to heaven, I rummaged through the appendix and found that IBM 's profits for the next five years (roughly $50 billion after taxes) would be wiped out by this transaction and we would show huge losses over that entire period.

When I told my CFO to question the banker about how this could be viewed as positive by the investment community, the answer came back: "Oh, investors would all see right through this. It wouldn't matter."

Ah, if only the elixir peddled by investment bankers worked, then CEOs would never have to worry or even work. Hello, golf!"

Reference : 'Who Says Elephants Can't Dance?' Inside IBM's Historic Turnaround Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. HarperCollinsPublishers Copyright © Louis V. Gerstner, Jr., 2002. Lessons Learned, page 221.

by Tommy Armour - To prevent these slices

"The open stance encourages a slice because it is inclined to promote a route of clubhead travel that has the face of the club coming from outside the line of intended flight and in and across the ball. This gives a clockwise spin, and a slice to the ball. The close stance has the opposite effect. It encourages a hook.

Most golfers slice from a square stance, for reasons too numerous to mention.

So, to prevent these slices and to give more distance, I teach my pupils to hit woods from a closed stance, with the right foot two or three inches farther back than the left foot is from the flight line through the ball.

The good golfers hit their woods from slightly closed stances. The closed stance permits the hips and body to turn easily, and as much as needed.

Reference : 'How To play Your Best Golf ALL THE TIME', Illustrated by Lealand Gustavson, Copyright © 1953, by Thomas D. Armour. Published by Simon and Schuster, Inc. New York, 1953.

"Tommy Armour was good enough as a player to win the Triple Crown of golf - the U.S. Open, the British Open and the P.G.A. Mighty few have accomplished this difficult feat.

He studied at Edinburgh University. He was an officer in the British Army through the First World War and was wounded severely. He came to the United Sates in 1920. Armour's greatest asset as an instructor, and as a writer of a book on golf, is his ability to diagnose faults and his added ability to correct the same.

He has tutored the world's best, and he has coached abject duffers and every variety of golfer in between, and in every case he has been the ideal teacher to see to it that they played up to the best golf of which they were capable. As the star instructor at Boca Raton in Florida, he not only commands record fees for teaching but he is busy practically from dawn to dusk."

Reference : 'How To play Your Best Golf ALL THE TIME', Illustrated by Lealand Gustavson, Copyright © 1953, by Thomas D. Armour.

Cambridge double-click dictionary Site Enabled

Bookmark and Share

Back to top